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PHYS 2080 - Physics Seminar: APA Style

Search for scientific literature effectively

How to Cite in APA Style?

Different subject disciplines use different citation styles, this guide will focus on how to make references in APA (American Psychological Association) style.

Click "Start" to learn, step by step, how to make in-text citation and end of paper references in APA style. (Requires Flash)

APA Style

In-Text Reference

  • If the author can be identified, write the author's surname (family name, last name) and publication year in brackets:
      ...Internet censorship creates (Trunk, 2007), ...
  • If the author can't be identified, write the first few words of the article title and the year, use double quotation marks around the title:
      ... work-life balance ("Finance and economics: when greed," 2007)...

End-of-paper References

  • Include all sources you have cited (make in-text reference to) in your paper
  • General format: 
    Author surname, Initials. (Year). Article title. Magazine titlevolume no. (issue no.), page range.

    Author surname, Initials. (Year). Article title. Newspaper title, page number.
    If the author can't be identified, article title will come first. 
    Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. or pp.
  • Sources should be listed in alphabetical order
  • Examples:


Finance and economics: when greed is bad; insider trading. (2007, May 12). The Economist, 383(8528), 82. 

Grayson, D. (2010). Corporate responsibility and the media . Economics, Management and Financial Markets,

House takes its turn on Internet censorship. (1995, Sep 12). New York Times, pp.A.22-A.22.

Jacobs, A. (2011, Mar 02). China puts some places off limits to journalists. New York Times, pp. A.4-A.4.
     Retrieved from

More Examples on APA Style


Yang, G. (2010). An insight into insider trading in greater China. Baltimore, Maryland: University of Maryland School of Law.

In text reference = (Yang, 2010)

Article or Chapter in a Book

Potter, J. M. (1978). Cantonese shamanism. In A. Wolf (Ed.), Studies in Chinese societies (pp. 321-345). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

In-text reference=  (Potter, 1978)

Article from an online encyclopedia

Insider trading. (2007). In Harriman's Financial Dictionary: Over 2,600 Essential Financial Terms. Retrieved from

In-text reference=  (Insider, 2007)

Journal Article  - 1 author

Moore, R. L. (2005). Generation Ku: Individualism and China's millennial youth. Ethnology44(4), 357-376.

In-text reference = (Moore, 2005)

E-Journal Article – 2 authors & d.o.i.

Cheung, R., & Arnold, J. (2010). Antecedents of career exploration among Hong Kong Chinese university students: Testing contextual and developmental variables. Journal of Vocational Behavior76(1), 25-36. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2009.05.006

In-text reference= (Cheung & Arnold, 2010)

Newspaper Article on the Web – author unknown

Gen-Y ‘lazy but creative’. (2011, May 27). The Standard. Retrieved from

In-text reference = (“Gen Y ‘lazy’,” 2011)

General Webpage – author unknown

Generation  Y. (2011, November 2). Retrieved from

In-text Reference = ("Generation Y," 2011)

Government Report on the Web

Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Central Policy Unit. (2010). Social attitudes of the youth population in Hong Kong. Retrieved from

In-text Reference (“Social attitudes,” 2010)

Video Clip from the Web

Zhang Xiao [Director]. (2010). China's post-80s generation, episode 1 [video]. Retrieved from

In-text reference = (Zhang, 2010)

Writing Guides and Manuals provides links to tips and examples on other citation styles

Research Guide: How to Cite in APA Style

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