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PHYS 2080 - Physics Seminar

In-text Citation

Basic rules:

  • Citations indicated by superscript numerals in consecutive numerical order through the text, with the references themselves arranged in the same order at the end of the paper
    ... Internet censorship creates,1 ...
  • Place citation indicators after commas, periods, quotation marks, colons, and semicolons
    ... As pointed out by Bray,2 these calculations are in agreement with other experimental values.3,4 ..
  • Do not put citation indicators adjacent to an equation or symbol, where they might be mistaken for numbers with a different meaning

End-of-paper References

General format:

Author(s) (Initials. Last name), Journal Name (using abbreviations), Volume Number, Starting page number, (Year).

Basic rules:

  • If a paper has more than 3 authors, quote only the first author's name followed by et al.
  • Include all sources you have cited (make in-text reference to) in order of citation as a separate, double-spaced list
  • Refer to the original sources whenever possible as you gather details for bibliographic references. Do not rely on intermediate citations which may contain misspelled names or erroneous data.
  • Sources should be listed by order of appearance in the text

End-of-paper References Examples

Journal Articles

  • Same author, two different journals

    1T. L. Gilbert, Phys. Rev. B 12, 2111 (1975); J. Chem. Phys. 60, 3835 (1974).
  • Same author, two references to same journal; different author, same journal

    2T. Nenner, H. Tien, and J. B. Fenn, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 5439 (1975); 64, 3902 (1976); Harold F. Winters, ibid. 64, 3495 (1976).
  • Article title included

    3R. Plomp, "Rate of decay of auditory sensation", J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 36, 277-282 (1964).
  • Issue number included

    4Marc D. Levenson, Phys. Today 30 (5), 44-49 (1977).


5L. S. Birks, Electron Probe Microanalysis, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1971), p. 40.

Unpublished Work

6J. Moskowitz, presented at the Midwest Conference on Theoretical Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 1966 (unpublished).
7R. T. Swan and C. M. Pitman, Saclay Report No. CEA-R 3147, 1957 (unpublished).


8W. J. Thompson and D. R. Albert, U. S. Patent No. 7,430,020 (3 March 1975).


9Technology: Catastrophe or Commitment?, film produced by Hobel-Leiterman Productions, Toronto (distributed by Document Associates, Inc., 880 Third Ave., New York, NY 10022; released 1974), 16mm, color, 24 min.

Computer program

10Norman R. Briggs, Computer code CRUX (Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, 1972).
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