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How to Cite in Chicago Style (17th Edition)

Introduction

Published by the University of Chicago since 1909, The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is a widely used guide for academic writing and publishing, with rules on grammar, usage, and citation. This LibGuide is based on The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition and focuses on citation.

Navigate this guide for quick help with citing your sources in CMOS (17th edition).

CMOS has two methods of citation

  • Notes & Bibliography  (Chapter 14) - more common in the humanities
    • Footnotes or endnotes, often with a bibliography at the end.
  • Author-Date & Bibliography  (Chapter 15) - more common in the sciences and social sciences
    • Author-date references in-text with a bibliography at the end.

Chinese & other non-Roman character languages

Citing Chinese Authors - what order of names?

  • Covered in CMOS,  section 8:15, p. 468
    • Follow usual Chinese name order: Family name Given name.
      • Examples: Wang Anyi; Sima Qian.

Citing Chinese and other non-Roman character languages

  • Covered in CMOS 17th ed. under Languages Usually Transliterated (or Romanized), sections 11.71 - 11.135, pages 647-667.
  • General practice for Chinese sources
    • Transliterate Chinese using pinyin.
      • Transliteration can be difficult! Here's some help from the University of Virginia.
    • Transliterate the titles of books and periodicals and italicize them.
    • Titles of articles or chapters in quotation marks.
    • Put the Chinese characters after the corresponding part in the citation.
    • Put translation of main title in square brackets [ ].
    • Book publication location & publisher, transliterate; but no need to put in characters or to translate.
    • Translation in square brackets.

Examples for Bibliography:

Books:

  • Sima, Qian 司馬遷. Shiji gushi xuanyi. 史記故事選譯 [Selected Translations of Stories from Historical Records]. Xianggan: Zhonghua shu ju, 1973.
  • Wang, Anyi 王安憶. Shanghai de gushi 上海的故事 [Shanghai Story]. Taibei Shi: Maitian chuban gufen youxian gongsi, Faxing Chengbang wenhua shiye gufen youxian gongsi, 1996.

Articles:

  • Hua, Linfu 华林甫. "Qingdai yilai Sanxia diqu shuihan zaihai de chubu yanjiu" 清代以来三峡地区水旱灾害的初步研究 [A preliminary study of floods and droughts in the Three Gorges region since the Qing dynasty]. Zhongguo shehui kexue 中国社会科学 1 (1999): 168–79.
  • Zeng, Weinü 曾尾女, Huang Guolei 黄国雷, Wang Bin 王斌, Cai Jin 蔡瑾, and Zheng Caijuan 郑彩娟. "Hongshu laiyuan qingmei shu zhenjun ciji daixie chanwu yu shengwu huoxing (2007-2020)" 红树来源青霉属真菌次级代谢产物与生物活性(2007~2020) [Secondary metabolites and biological activities of Penicillium fungi derived from mangrove trees (2007~2020)]. Youji huaxue 有机化学 41, no. 11 (2021): 4255–78. https://doi.org/10.6023/cjoc202103044.
  • Gan, Huayang 甘华阳, Liang Kai 梁开, Lin Jinqing 林进清, Zheng Zhichang 郑志昌, and Yan Zhangcun 闫章存. "Beibu wan beibu binhai shidi chenji wu zhong shen yu ge he gong yuansu de fenbu yu leiji" 北部湾北部滨海湿地沉积物中砷与镉和汞元素的分布与累积 [Distribution and accumulation of arsenic, cadmium and mercury elements in coastal wetland sediments in the northern Beibu Gulf]. Haiyang Dizhi yu Disiji Dizhi 海洋地质与第四纪地质 33, no. 3 (2013): 15–28. https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1140.2013.03015.

More detailed guides:

Most Common Reference Types

Books & Book Chapters

Notes & Bibliography Author-Date & Reference List
Format

Notes

Given Name Family Name, Title of Book (Publisher's city: Publisher's name, Year): page number.
 

Bibliography

Family Name, Given Name. Book title (# edition, if available). Location: Publisher, Year

In-text citations

Text that you are writing... (Author Year, page number).
 

Reference list

Family Name, Given Name. Year. Book title (# edition, if available). Location: Publisher.

 
  • If e-book, add the URL, or if read offline (e.g. on kindle) put the format.
  • If more than one author, the subsequent names given name first, like in a footnote.
  • Use a hanging indent.

Example 1

(Authored book)

 

In delayed transfer marriage, soon after a marriage ceremony, a bride would return to her own family to live and work for three years; visiting her husband's home only for major holidays like Lunar New Year, Qing Ming, etc.1


Notes

1. Janice E. Stockard, Daughters of the Canton Delta: Marriage patterns and Economic Strategies in South China, 1860-1930 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989), 12.

Bibliography

Stockard, Janice E. Daughters of the Canton Delta: Marriage patterns and Economic Strategies in South China, 1860-1930. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989.

In-text citations

In delayed transfer marriage, soon after a marriage ceremony, the bride would return to her own family to live and work for three years; visiting her husband's home only for major holidays like Lunar New Year, Qing Ming, etc. (Stockard 1989, 12).
 

Reference list

Stockard, Janice E. 1989. Daughters of the Canton Delta: Marriage patterns and Economic Strategies in South China, 1860-1930. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Example 2

(Chapter in edited book)

The term "astronaut" was coined for people who settled their families overseas (often in Canada) and returned to Hong Kong to work.1


Notes

1. Janet Salaff, Angela Shik, and Arent Greve, "Like Sons and Daughters of Hong Kong: the Return of the Younger Generation," in Hong Kong Mobile: Making a Global Population, eds.  Helen F. Siu and Agnes S. Ku (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2008), 202.
 

Bibliography

Salaff, Janet, Angela Shik, and Arent Greve. "Like Sons and Daughters of Hong Kong: the Return of the Younger Generation." In Hong Kong Mobile: Making a Global Population, edited by Helen F. Siu and Agnes S, Ku, 201-222. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2008. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1xwgdb.

In-text citations

The term "astronaut" was coined for people who settled their families overseas (often in Canada) and returned to Hong Kong to work (Salaff, Shik, and Greve 2008, 202).


Reference list

Salaff, Janet, Angela Shik, and Arent Greve. 2008. "Like Sons and Daughters of Hong Kong: the Return of the Younger Generation." In Hong Kong Mobile: Making a Global Population, edited by Helen F. Siu and Agnes S, Ku, 201-222. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1xwgdb.

More examples:

Journal Articles

Notes & Bibliography Author-Date & Reference List
Format

Notes

Given Name Family Name, "Title of the Article," Title of Journal  vol. issue # (Year): page number.
 

Bibliography

Family Name, Given Name. "Title of article." Title of Periodical, volume number, issue number (Year): page range. DOI or URL (if available).

In-text citations

Text that you are writing... (Author Year, page number).
 

Reference list

Family Name, Given Name. Year. "Title of article." Title of Periodical, volume number, issue number: page range. DOI or URL (if available).

 
  • If online, put the URL or database name.
  • If more than one author, the subsequent names given name first, like in a footnote.
  • Use a hanging indent.

Example

 

In Cantonese language bridal laments recorded in Hong Kong in the 1960s, a bride would rhetorically call on brothers, sisters and others  to save her from marriage, but with no real expectation of rescue.1


Notes

1. Yuk-Hing Ho, "Bridal Laments in Rural Hong Kong," Asian Folklore Studies 64, no. 1 (2005): 69,https://www.jstor.org/stable/30030358.

Bibliography

Ho, Yuk-Ying. “Bridal Laments in Rural Hong Kong.” Asian Folklore Studies 64, no. 1 (2005): 53–87. https://www.jstor.org/stable/30030358.

In-text citations

In Cantonese language bridal laments recorded in Hong Kong in the 1960s, a bride would rhetorically call on brothers, sisters and others to save her from marriage, but with no real expectation of rescue (Ho 2005, 69).

Reference list

Ho, Yuk-Ying. 2005. “Bridal Laments in Rural Hong Kong.” Asian Folklore Studies 64, no. 1: 53–87. https://www.jstor.org/stable/30030358.

More examples:

Online News Articles

Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, etc. are usually cited like journal articles,. Put in the name of the author, if known, the headline or column heading, date, are important elements. Page numbers (if any) can be cited in a note but don't put them in the bibliography. Include a URL or the name of the database.

Notes & Bibliography Author-Date & Reference List
Format

Notes

Name, "Title of news article", Title of Newspaper or News site, Date, URL.
 

Bibliography

Family Name, Given Name. "Title of article." Title of News source, Date. URL.

In-text citations

It was found that... (Author Year).

Reference list

Family Name, Given Name. Year. "Title of article." Title of News source, Date. URL.

 
  • Use a hanging indent.

Example

 

The sudden Covid-19 lock-downs meant that people had to come up with ad-hoc solutions to help the vulnerable elderly.1


Notes

1. Kathleen Toner, "When Covid-19 Hit, He Turned his Newspaper Route into a Lifeline for Senior Citizens," CNN, December 4, 2020, https://edition.cnn.com/2020/06/04/us/coronavirus-newspaper-deliveryman-groceries-senior-citizens-cnnheroes-trnd/index.html.

Bibliography

Toner, Kathleen. "When Covid-19 Hit, He Turned his Newspaper Route into a Lifeline for Senior Citizens." CNN, December 4, 2020. https://edition.cnn.com/2020/06/04/us/coronavirus-newspaper-deliveryman-groceries-senior-citizens-cnnheroes-trnd/index.html

In-text citations

The sudden Covid-19 lock-downs meant that people had to come up with ad-hoc solutions to help the vulnerable elderly (Toner 2020).

Reference list

Toner, Kathleen. 2020. "When Covid-19 Hit, He Turned his Newspaper Route into a Lifeline for Senior Citizens." CNN, December 4, 2020. https://edition.cnn.com/2020/06/04/us/coronavirus-newspaper-deliveryman-groceries-senior-citizens-cnnheroes-trnd/index.html

More examples:

Website Content

To cite a web-page or online content other than online journals or news sites and things shown on other tabs in this, provide (if you can find it):

  • Title of the specific page being cited; title or description of the website as a whole; the owner or sponsor of the site; and a URL
  • If it would not be clear to your readers that it is from the web,  put in the words (website) or (web page) after the title.
  • Include the last update or last revision date if there is one. If there isn't, put in the date you accessed it.

If it is a frequently updated page (like Wikipedia) a time stamp may be included.

Notes & Bibliography Author-Date & Reference List
Format

Notes

"Title of Webpage," Title of the Website as a Whole, Name of Sponsoring Organization or Person, Date, URL.
 

Bibliography

Name of Sponsoring Organization or Person. "Title of Webpage," Title of the Website as a Whole. Date. URL.

In-text citations

It was found that... (Author Year).
 

Reference list

Name of Sponsoring Organization or Person. Year. "Title of Webpage," Title of the Website as a Whole. Date. URL.

 
  • Arrange in the bibliography by owner or sponsor of the site. 
  • Use a hanging indent.

Example

 

In the early months of 2024, the water quality at the one open Gazetted beach in Sai Kung was rated as Grade 1, "Good".1


Notes

1. "Clear Water Bay Second Beach - Latest  Beach Water Quality Rating," Environmental Protection Interactive Center, Environmental Protection Department [HKSAR Government], accessed February 2, 2024, https://cd.epic.epd.gov.hk/EPICDI/beach/gradingreport/cw2/.

Bibliography

Environmental Protection Department [HKSAR Government]. "Clear Water Bay Second Beach - Latest  Beach Water Quality Rating." Environmental Protection Interactive Center. Accessed February 2, 2024. https://cd.epic.epd.gov.hk/EPICDI/beach/gradingreport/cw2/.

In-text citations

In the early months of 2024, the water quality at the one open Gazetted beach in Sai Kung was  rated as Grade 1, "Good" (Environmental Protection Department, HKSAR Government, n.d.).

Reference list

Environmental Protection Department [HKSAR Government]. n.d. "Clear Water Bay Second Beach - Latest  Beach Water Quality Rating." Environmental Protection Interactive Center. Accessed February 2, 2024. https://cd.epic.epd.gov.hk/EPICDI/beach/gradingreport/cw2/.

More Examples:

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