Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

How to Cite in APA Style (7th Edition)

Introduction

APA stands for American Psychological Association. This style is widely used in the field of psychology and social sciences. When using APA style, references are cited in text using the author-date system and are listed alphabetically in the reference list at the end of the paper, which provides the necessary details to identify and retrieve the sources used.

In October 2019, APA introduced the APA Publication Manual, 7th edition. It replaces the 6th edition published in 2009. This guide is prepared based on the 7th edition with relevant sections and page numbers provided.

Navigate this guide for quick help with citing your sources in APA (7th edition).

Most Common Reference Types - A Quick Overview

Books

  In-text Citation End-of-paper Reference
Format

It was found that... (Author, Year).

Author (Year) found that...

Authors / Editors (Year). Book title (# edition, if available). Publisher. DOI or URL (if available)

Example 1

(Authored book)

It was found that... (Hamblen & Mueser, 2021).

Hamblen and Mueser (2021) found that...

Hamblen, J. L., & Mueser, K. T. (2021). Treatment for postdisaster distress: A transdiagnostic approach. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000237-000

Example 2

(Edited book)

It was found that... (Hemlin et al., 2013).

Hemlin et al. (2013) found that...

Hemlin, S., Allwood, C. M.,  Martin, B. R., & Mumford, M. D. (Eds.). (2013). Creativity and leadership in science, technology, and innovation. Routledge.

More examples on book references 

Journal Articles

  In-text Citation End-of-paper Reference
Format

It was found that... (Author, Year).

Author (Year) found that...

Authors. Title of article. Title of Periodicalvolume number(issue number), pages. DOI or URL (if available)

Example 1

It was found that... (Diliello et al., 2011).

Diliello et al. (2011) found that...

Diliello, T. C., Houghton, J. D., & Dawley, D. (2011). Narrowing the creativity gap: The moderating effects of perceived support for creativity. Journal of Psychology, 145(3), 151-172. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2010.548412

Example 2

(Missing page no. and DOI)

It was found that... (Butler, 2017).

Butler (2017) found that...

Butler, J. (2017). Where access meets multimodality: The case of ASL music videos. Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy, 21(1). http://technorhetoric.net/21.1/topoi/butler/index.html

More examples on article references 

Online News Articles

  In-text Citation End-of-paper Reference
Format

It was found that... (Author, Year).

Author (Year) found that...

Authors (Date). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. URL

Example

It was found that... (Toner, 2020).

Toner (2020) found that...

Toner, K. (2020, September 24). When Covid-19 hit, he turned his newspaper route into a lifeline for senior citizens. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/04/us/coronavirus-newspaper-deliveryman-groceries-senior-citizens-cnnheroes-trnd/index.html

More examples 

Webpages / Online Reports

  In-text Citation End-of-paper Reference
Format

It was found that... (Author, Year).

Author (Year) found that...

Authors (Year or Date). Title of work. Publisher Name (if available) or Site Name. URL

Example 1

It was found that... (Schaeffer, 2021).

Schaeffer (2021) found that...

Schaeffer, K. (2021, October 1). What we know about online learning and the homework gap amid the pandemic. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/10/01/what-we-know-about-online-learning-and-the-homework-gap-amid-the-pandemic/

Example 2

(Author is an organization)

It was found that... (Census and Statistics Department, 2021).

Census and Statistics Department (2021) found that...

Census and Statistics Department (2021). Annual report on the consumer price index 2021. https://www.censtatd.gov.hk/en/data/stat_report/
product/B1060002/att/B10600022021AN21B0100.pdf

More examples 

Official APA Guides

APA Guides by other institutions:

© HKUST Library, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. All Rights Reserved.