Some Reasons Why Scholars Cite 1
Note: You need to cite sources in your writing if you use someone else's ideas, data, methodologies, illustrations, etc.; it does not matter what format they are in and whether they are copyrighted or freely accessible on the Web.
If, for example, you want to cite this article in your paper to support your argument, you should:
What about indirect sources?
For example, you read about Smith's idea (or research findings) in Nicholson's paper and you did not read Smith's article yourself. In this case, you CANNOT cite a source that you have not read, so you need to indicate that the information is obtained from a secondary source:
What about personal communications?
Personal communications may be private letters, memo, electronic communications (e.g. e-mail), personal interviews, telephone communications, etc. Because they are not considered recoverable data, so personal communications are not required in the reference list, but you have to cite personal communications within the text. Give the initials, follow by the surname of the communicator, and provide the exact date as possible.
In-text Reference = (T.W. Lau, personal communication, September 2, 2012)
- Author(s) - who wrote it
- Title - what the article is called
- Source - title of the periodical or larger work it appeared in
- Volume & Issue numbers
- Publication date
- Page numbers